Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is used with increasing frequency to evaluate the child and neonatal brain because it can provide important diagnostic and prognostic information that is needed for optimal treatment and appropriate counselling. Moreover, to accurately interpret the findings, specific knowledge is needed about the normal MR imaging appearances of the physiologic processes of myelination, cell migration and sulcation, as well as patterns of injury, in the neonatal brain at various stages of gestational development.
Materials and Methods
Inclusion Criteria: Patients of pediatric age group (neonate to 14 years of age) having seizure and confusion, undergoing magnetic resonance imaging for suspicion of encephalopathy and diagnosed as the same in magnetic resonance imaging.
Exclusion Criteria: Patients with central nervous system pathologies other than encephalopathies. Patients having metallic implants and pacemaker. Patients having claustrophobia.
Study type: Retrospective study (Record based study)
Results and Conclusion: In the study, most common type of encephalopathy was hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (48.7%) followed by hypoglycemic encephalopathy (36.5%) followed by metabolic encephalopathy. Out of 20 patients having MRI findings of HIE, 60% patients had diffusion restriction and FLAIR hyperintensity predominantly in basal ganglia region. Out of 15 patients having hypoglycemic encephalopathy, 66.6% patients had restricted diffusion predominantly in cerebral cortex. Out of 6 patients having metabolic encephalopathy, 66.6% patient had restricted diffusion predominantly in centrum semiovale. Despite recent advances in the MR imaging–based characterization of these conditions clinical history must be reviewed carefully for information that may helpful identify the cause of injury.