Preeclampsia is a multisystem disease characterized by the development of hypertension after 20 weeks of gestation in a previously normotensive woman with the presence of proteinuria, severity leading to target organ injury, including liver, kidney, heart, lungs, brain and pancreas. We evaluated the ophthalmic artery Doppler indices (PSV, EDV, PI, RI) in normotensive and in pre-eclampic pregnancies and correlated the Doppler indices changes with fundoscopic findings.
Materials and methods: Orbital Ultrasonography was performed on the pregnant women who developed high blood pressure after 20 weeks of gestation and on the normal pregnant women as control and the Doppler indices of ophthalmic artery were determined. Fundoscopic examination of the patients was done with direct ophthalmoscope. Hypertensive Retinal changes observed in both eyes were taken as positive findings.
Results: The study showed that PSV, RI and PI and S/D ratio were reduced in pre-eclampic patients when compared with healthy normotensive pregnant women while EDV was increased in pre-eclampic patients when compared with healthy normotensive pregnant women. Statistically significant relationship among Doppler parameters namely PSV, EDV, PI, RI, S/D values between normotensive and pre-eclampic patients was noted. Fundoscopic changes were noted among sever pre-eclampsia patients.
Conclusions: Ophthalmic artery Doppler Ultrasonography can detect pre-eclampsia in early stages when compared to fundoscopy and is a cheap, noninvasive, readily available, safe, and reliable tool for evaluation of the central hemodynamic changes in normal pregnancy, and even more so in PE.