The aim of the present study to evaluate the Gall Bladder Volume in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients Using Real Time Ultrasonography.
Methods: A cross-sectional prospective study among 100, 50 were type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with duration of 5 years or more, with diabetic complications are included as cases and 52 age and sex matched healthy controls. Autonomic neuropathy was assessed by the presence of symptoms like dysphagia, abdominal fullness, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, fecal incontinence, urinary incontinence, gustatory sweating, impotence etc. Under aseptic conditions, 3ml fasting blood samples were collected from all the subjects and used for the estimation of fasting blood sugar, post prandial blood sugar.
Results: In the present study, 50 type 2 diabetes mellitus patients as cases and 50 healthy subjects underwent sonographic evaluation of the gallbladder volume in both fasting state and post prandial (after standardized fatty meal) state. In the present study, BMI (26.08±2.21kg/m2), FBS (159.88±23.09mg/dl), PPBS (247.01±37.01mg/dl), Fasting gall bladder volume (35.15±7.02cm3), post fatty meal gall bladder volume (15.91±6.87cm3), ejection fraction (51.04±17.02cm3) were significantly increased in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients compared with healthy controls. T2DM patients without diabetic complications were reported in 25 (50%) patients. Peripheral neuropathy was observed in 10(20%), peripheral neuropathy & Autonomic neuropathy was reported in 9(18%) cases. In the present study, fasting GB Volume (cm3), post fatty meal GB Volume (cm3) and ejection fraction (%) were compared between the T2DM patients without complications and with complications. The fasting GB Volume (cm3) was not statistically significant between two groups (p=0.255). The post fatty meal gallbladder volume (cm3) was statistically significant between the two groups (p<0.001). The ejection fraction (%) difference observed in the mean value between the two groups was statistically significant with a p<0.03
Conclusion: Ultrasound evaluation of gall bladder volume (fasting and post-prandial) and Ejection Fraction are efficient parameters to evaluate gallbladder function. Gallbladder function should be evaluated routinely in T2DM patients as incomplete gallbladder emptying may lead to gallstone formation and associated complications. Further studies with large sample size are recommended.