Context: Renal Doppler sonography provides an easily applicable and non-invasive method for investigating renal morphologic characteristics and measuring vascular resistance in the renal parenchyma which is defined by the renal resistive index (RI). RI is elevated in tubule interstitial and vascular pathologies. Estimation of RI and its role in the diagnosis of diabetic nephropathy in diabetes mellitus is not well defined.
Aim of the study: To evaluate the association between renal resistive index, microalbuminuria and serum biochemical markers in patients with diabetes mellitus.
Material and Methods: A cross sectional study was done in Department of Radiodiagnosis in Government medical college Baroda from December 2018 to September 2020. 100 diabetic patients without other comorbidities were enrolled in the study. Renal Doppler was done using a 3.5 MHz convex array probe. SPSS 16 software was used for statistical analysis.
Results: Majority of patients belonged to the age group of 41- 50 years. Majority of patients were males (63%). The mean duration of diabetes in our study was 6.17 ± 5.16 years. 71% of our patients had uncontrolled diabetes mellitus (HbA1c >= 6.5) and 29% had controlled diabetes mellitus (HbA1c < 6.5). Statistically significant association was found between microalbuminuria and RI (P value of < 0.0001). Statistically significant correlation was found between RI and HbA1C (P=0.008), serum creatinine (P<0.0001), e-GFR (P<0.0001) and duration of diabetes mellitus (P= 0.0001).
Conclusions: Out of the 100 patients, RI was elevated in 57 patients. RI had a statistically significant association with microalbuminuria. Statistically significant correlation was found between RI and serum creatinine, HbA1C, eGFR and duration of diabetes. Of the 57 patients with raised RI, 37 patients had normal serum creatinine levels, implying that RI is elevated before serum creatinine is elevated.