Background: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is characterized by atherosclerosis in coronary arteries. CAD happens to be the leading cause of death worldwide and was reported to be responsible for death of approximately 7.2 million persons as per a WHO report published in 2004, with number of males being slightly higher as compared to that of females (3.8 million as compared to 3.4 million). Prevalence of CAD in US population aged 20 years or more is reported to be 6.7% (7.4% males, 6.2% females). Worldwide its prevalence is estimated to be approximately 5-8%.
Material and Method: This prospective observational study conducted for duration of 18 months at Era’ slucknow Medical College and Hospital located at Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh. Included all the patients aged between 25 – 70 years presenting with complaints of chest pain were clinically examined, patients showing symptoms of artery diseases were subjected to radiological and biochemical examination. An informed consent for inclusion in the study was obtained, demographic information, duration and nature of complaints were recorded on a separate case sheet (Appendix). Radiological and biochemical findings were also recorded on the case sheet. Epicardial Fat volume and coronary artery calcium scoring were evaluated on Siemens somatom- Force (384 slice) Dual Energy CT. CIMT was evaluated by USG Doppler. CIMT was measured by carotid arteries imaging on VOLUSON P8, using a high frequency 7-12 MHz linear electronic array transducer. CAC score was calculated by Agatston score. HsCRP was measured by turbidimetric assay on auto-analyzer
Result: Out of 42 patients enrolled in the study, 13 (31.0%) patients were diagnosed as coronary artery disease, rest 29 (69.0%) were not diagnosed to be suffering from coronary artery disease. Range of age of patients enrolled in the study was 27 to 65 years, mean age was 46.33±10.59. Mean age of CAD patients (56.15±8.55 years; range 40-65 yrs) was significantly higher as compared to No CAD (41.93±8.25 years; range: 27-60 years).Range of Body mass Index of patients enrolled in the study was 22.00 to 33.20 kg/m2 and mean body mass index was 26.00±3.09 kg/m2. Body mass index of CAD patients (30.13±1.63; range: 28-33.20 kg/m2) was found to be significantly higher than that of No CAD patients (24.15±1.17; range: 22.0-27.0 kg/m2).Range of Epicardial fat volume (EFV) of patients enrolled in the study was 7.15 to 28.00 cc, mean EFV was 12.36±6.27 cc. Mean EFV of patients of CAD was found to be significantly higher than No CAD (15.69±7.41 vs. 10.87±5.15 cc).
Conclusion: A total of 42 patients presenting with chest pain at Department of Cardiology were enrolled. Of these 42 patients, 13 (31.0%) were confirmed to be suffering from Coronary artery disease and rest 29 (69.0%) confirmed as not suffering from Coronary artery. CAD patients were older and higher BMI than No CAD patients. Gender did not show any significant association with CAD. Correlation of EFV with Total Calcium score and hs-CRP were significant. Correlation of EFV and CIMT was not found to be significant. Total Calcium score, EFV and hsCRP were found to be significant predictors of coronary artery disease (Area under curve 0.908, 0.773 and 0.764 respectively).