Breast cancer is the most common female cancer in the world. The prognosis depends on whether metastasis is present or not. The objective of this study was to provide an overview of the CT scan aspects identified during the evaluation of breast cancer extension in the Radiology department of the Teaching University Hospital of Hubert Koutoukou Maga (CNHU-HKM) in Cotonou in Benin.
Materials and Methods: It was a descriptive study with retrospective collection, conducted from January 1, 2018 to January 31, 2019 (13 months), in the Radiology department of CNHU-HKM. It focused on patients referred for a chest-abdominal-pelvic computed tomography (PET) scan, as part of an extension assessment for breast cancer.
Results: During the period of the study, 40 chest-abdominal-pelvic CT scans were compiled, of which 38 (95%) were women and 02 men (5%), and among which 23 were metastatic, accountings for a prevalence of 57.5%. The average age was 51.22 ± 16.33 with extremes of 30 and 83 years old. Among our patients, 32 (80%) had undergone a CT scan for an initial diagnostic of extension assessment, and 08 (20%) for the therapeutic response assessment. According to the TNM classification, T4 tumors accounted for 27.5% (11 cases). Lymph node involvement was found in 18 cases (43.90%), accounting for 12 (30%) of N1 and 6 (15%) of N3. The most commonly found metastatic sites were the lung in 25% followed by the pleura and the liver with equal percentages (10%). The metastases CT scan aspect was typically a carcinomatous lymphangitis appearance; fluid pleural effusions; hypodenses hypovascular nodules hepatics; osteolytic or mixed bone damage and peritoneum, especially fluid effusion associated with peritoneal nodules.
Conclusion: The frequency of breast cancer metastases is high in Benin. The most commonly found metastatic sites on scanner in descending order are the lungs, liver and bones.