In the recent years High-resolution ultrasonography (HRUS) has geared up as a new diagnostic tool in the work-up of peripheral nerve diseases. As most of the peripheral nerves run a superficial course over a long tract, especially in the arms and legs which could be easily visualised using ultrasonogram.
Aim: To assess the morphology of tibial nerve using ultrasonogram and correlate it with the glycemic score among the diabetes mellitus patients
Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted for a period of 6 months in the radiology department. A non-random quota sampling was followed to select the sample size and based on that 50 subjects were taken as our study sample. All known type II diabetes patients with a history of peripheral neuropathy were included as our study subjects. Ultrasonography was performed for all study subjects with USG Samsung Accuvix XG Linear probe 5-12 MHz. The maximum thickness of the nerve fascicle was calculated by the largest antero-posterior dimension and the lateral dimension of the largest hypoechoic area in the short axis view of the tibial nerve.
Results: Correlation between the HbA1C levels and the maximum thickness of nerve fascicles measurements shows that there was statistically significant positive correlation exist between the two parameters, as the levels of HbA1c increases the thickness of nerve fascicles also increases and similarly a statistical significant association was observed between the duration of diabetes and maximum thickness of nerve fascicles.
Conclusion: Ultrasonography is an excellent diagnostic tool for detecting morphological changes in the tibial nerves in diabetic patients.