AbstractAims and Objective:
The purpose of our study is to (a) To demonstrate the different patterns of pulmonary abnormalities in HIV patients. (b) To define imaging features of each disease whether infective, non-infective or HIV associated pulmonary malignancy. (c) To differentiate different pulmonary diseases in HIV patients on the basis of pattern of involvement and localization of lesions. (d) To corelate the X ray and CT scan finding, and to evaluate the role of CT scan imaging in pulmonary abnormalities in HIV patients.
Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out at Shree Sayajirao General Hospital (SSGH), vadodara, Gujarat, India from September 2018 to November 2019. Ninety patients with HIV positive having pulmonary symptoms were enrolled in this study, and studied prospectively with X ray chest and HRCT. The pattern, extent and severity of HRCT findings were recorded and compared with the plain x-ray findings. The gathered information and investigations were subjected to statistical analysis.
Results: Out of 90 patients X ray was normal in 13 patients (14.44%), while HRCT was normal in only in 4(4.44%) patients. Most common finding on x ray was pleural effusion, while most common finding on HRCT was mediastinal lymphadenopathy followed by pulmonary nodules. In our study higher number of sample with pulmonary abnormality were detected on HRCT as compared to X-ray and for consolidation, pulmonary nodules and fibrosis difference were statistically significant (p<0.05).
Conclusion: HRCT is better than X ray in evaluation of pulmonary abnormality in HIV positive patients. HRCT limits down the differential diagnosis, helps in early detection of disease. HRCT is recommended when the radiographic findings are normal or inconclusive and pulmonary abnormality is suspected clinically, for the confirmation of diagnosis. Early and proper diagnosis of pulmonary complications in patients with HIV infection will help clinicians to develop a focused therapeutic approach to patient management. Thus HRCT can decrease morbidity and mortality in these patient by early detection of diseases.