Thyroid swelling is one of the most common clinical problems seen in the outpatient department. Thyroid clinical evaluation is not always conclusive. As a result, the clinician must rely on other diagnostic modalities such as ultrasonography, FNAC, and others to make a definitive diagnosis.
Aims and Objectives: To evaluate high frequency sonographic pattern of clinically significant thyroid diseases and to study the pathological pattern of thyroid lesions in correlation with histopathologic report.
Methodology: Cross-sectional, hospital-based study was carried out in Department of Radio Diagnosis, Shadan Institute of Medical Sciences, Hyderabad, Telangana, India for patients presenting for USG investigation of thyroid.
Results: Study found a 1:4 male-to-female ratio. Females have more thyroid lesions. Patients with sonogram-detected lesions. 12.5% of 40 instances 62.5% cystic, 42.5% mixed echotexture lesions. Sonographic lesions are seen above. 27 benign solid lesions out of 32 were malignant. We found 4 FNAC-proven lesions. FNAC confirmed just 6 of 10 colloid goitre diagnoses. FNAC confirmed the erroneous positives as multinodular goitre. FNAC confirmed only 5 of 7 cases of multinodular goitre. FNAC confirmed the erroneous positives as Hashimoto's thyroiditis. FNAC confirmed 14 cases of Hashimoto's thyroiditis. FNAC confirmed the erroneous positives as multinodular goitre. All 10 colloid goitres with cystic degeneration were accurately diagnosed.90% of colloid goitres were correctly identified. FNAC confirmed the misdiagnosis as multinodular goitre.9 multinodular goitre cases were appropriately diagnosed (100%). FNAC confirmed one misdiagnosed case as Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Ultrasound properly diagnosed 2 cases of haemorrhagic cysts (100 percent).Ultrasonography found two cases of papillary thyroid cancer, and one of them (50%) was successfully diagnosed. In 8 of 10 cases of Hashimoto's thyroiditis (diffuse thyroid disease), the proper diagnosis was multinodular goitres.
Conclusion: There is a high degree of agreement between ultrasound diagnosis and histopathologic diagnosis. So Ultrasound is a very effective and valuable tool in in diagnosing thyroid lesions.